Background

Clothing worn by someone is of value to Allah S.W.T. Allah has set a general guide in dressing, which intend to cover the aurat. Allah S.W.T. says:

يَابَنِي ءَادَمَ قَدْ أَنْزَلْنَا عَلَيْكُمْ لِبَاسًا يُوَارِي سَوْآتِكُمْ وَرِيشًا وَلِبَاسُ التَّقْوَى ذَلِكَ خَيْرٌ ذَلِكَ مِنْ ءَايَاتِ اللَّهِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَذَّكَّرُونَ
Meaning: O Children of Adam! We have sent to you clothing to cover your aurat and as adornment. However, the best clothing is the clothing of piety. This is one of Allah’s revelation so that people may remember.” (al-A’raf:26)

In the book of tafsir Al-Azhar, Prof. Dr. Hamka said, Allah reminded us on clothing of piety. In defining the original meaning of takwa(piety), that is to preserve, the clothing itself is to preserve the aurat(nakedness) so as not to be exposed and takwa also is able to nourish the soul. The verse above also tells us Islam does not prevent us to beautify ourselves. If we were to put on luxury clothing, colourful be it men or women till we become takkabur, than it is prohibited.

Clothing is s personal symbol to each individual. Through clothing we can assess the character or personality of a person because it indirectly reflects us. Islam emphasizes us to be properly dressed in our daily lives be it men or women as it can preserve the dignity of a person.

However, not everybody obey the laws laid down by Allah fully in their daily lives. Nowadays, a lot of Muslim women are perceived as being naked although they are wearing the Hijab. They simply understand the concept of covering themselves with a Hijab only in line with the trends and fashions of today, but not as what is ordered by Allah S.W.T. This clearly demonstrates the original purpose of covering the aurat has been derailed by what is required by Syarak.

When it comes to women’s clothing outside the house, it’s closely related to women’s aurat during Solat (prayers). Seldom do we see women wear “ready Solat” clothing when they go out. If they do, it will be easier for them to perform the Solat anytime. The number of women wearing “Solat ready” clothes are relatively very low. So, brochures that are provided intend to assist them in understanding the concept of covering the aurat better.



PREFACE

Today, various forms and ways of dressing are used by women in performing the Solat, be it in accordance with the Islamic law or contradicting it., Normally women are seen wearing a white linen set called the veil (telekung) every time they Solat and and making it a habit that cannot be abandoned. In fact, the veil is to help women who want to pray whether in the house or outside the house perfectly, but it is not a mandatory requirement for Solat.

Allah S.W.T. says:
يَا بَنِي آدَمَ خُذُوا زِينَتَكُمْ عِنْدَ كُلِّ مَسْجِدٍ
Meaning: “ O Son of Adam! Wear your best and beautiful clothes when you enter the mosque. ” (Al-A’raf: 31)

Beautiful clothes in this verse means clothing that can cover the aurat, while mosque in the verse means solat. So the verse means “cover your aurat each time you pray(solat)”
Women who wants to perform the solat do not necessarily need to wear white veil(telekung) as is common practise. In fact they are required to wear clothing other than a veil(telekung) for solat as long as they cover their aurat. Wearing daily clothes that are loose and can perfectly cover the aurat is required according to syarak and can perform the solat.
Valid Solat requirement must be met fully before solat can be performed. If any of the requirement is omitted, the solat is not valid. The valid solat requirements are :-
  1. Knowing the solat time.
  2. Clean from major and minor impurities.
  3. Cleanse of the body, clothes and solat place from najis.
  4. Covering the aurat.
  5. Facing the Qiblat.
WOMEN’S AURAT DURING PRAYERS

Covering the aurat is one of the valid solat requirement that needs to be adhered to by women in order for their solat to be accepted by Allah S.W.T. Allah S.W.T. says:

وَلَا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلَّا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا ۖ
Meaning: “ and do not display their ornaments except what (must ordinarily) appear thereof..” (Al-Nur: 31)

The above verse implies the women cannot reveal their body aurat except the face and palms.
Dira’ is women's clothes worn from the neck to the base of the body (such as dresses, blouses, shirts or “baju kurung”). While Khimar is a head dress and not required to cover the face..
Rasulullah SAW said:
لَا يَقْبَلُ اللَّهُ صَلَاةَ حَائِضٍ إِلَّا بِخِمَارٍ
Meaning: “Allah SWT does not accept the solat of women who have reached puberty except by wearing Khimars.".

This shows that Allah commanded that every woman must cover her head during solat. As Allah commands the women to cover it up until the chest.

وَلْيَضْرِبْنَ بِخُمُرِهِنَّ عَلَىٰ جُيُوبِهِنَّ ۖ

Meaning: “and let them cover parts of their neck with scarves on their heads”. ( Surah Al-Nur: 31)

Women must provide appropriate clothing to be used during solat. The clothing must meet conditions such as lengthy enough, loose and thick enough not to reveal the colour of the skin. If the clothes is thin, it’s not valid to be worn during solat.
 
Syeikh Abu Malik Kamal Bin As-Sayid Salim. 2012. Ensiklopedia Fiqah Wanita Muslimah. Selangor: Berlian Publications Sdn Bhd. p.g 79.
Haya Binti Mubarok Al-Barik. 1999. Ensiklopedia Wanita Muslimah. Kuala Lumpur: Pustaka Syuhada. p.g. 80-81.
Sunan Abu Dawud, No.641, Sunan Ibnu Majah, No.655. Status Hadis: Sahih.

AURAT LIMIT ACCORDING TO MAZHAB SYAFIE

The women’s aurat (except slaves) and also hermaphrodites (who are unsure of their gender or having both male and female reproductive organs) is their whole body except the face and both palms, be it back or front of their hands that covers from the tip of their fingers to their wrist. This is based on what Allah SWT says:
وَلَا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلَّا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا
Meaning: “..and they do not show their ornaments except what appears thereof ”. (Surah An-Nur: 24)

Ibn Abbas r.a. and ‘Aisha r.a. implies ‘what appears thereof’ is both face and palms because Prophet Muhammad SAW forbade Ihram women (whether for Hajj or Umrah) from wearing gloves and masks. If the face is considered aurat, it will not be forbidden to cover it during Ihram.
 
HUKUM AND SOLAT CLOTHING CHARACTERISTIC FOR WOMEN

Wajib : For woman who wants to pray(solat), the required clothing is those that covers her aurat, which is her whole body except her face and palms.
Sunat : It is sunat for a woman in solat to wear three clothing, a hood to cover the head until the neck, another to cover the body and both feet and outer clothing to cover the inner clothing. It is also sunat for the woman to use thick clothing, to conceal the shape of her body and also encouraged to wear white because it is Prophet Muhammad SAW favourite colour. Rasulullah SAW said:
عَنْ سَمُرَةَ بْنِ جُنْدَبٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ (ص) ((اِلْبَسُوا ثِيَابَ الْبَيَاضِ, فَإِنَّهَا أَطْهَرُ وَأَطْيَبُ ، وَكَفِّنُوا فِيْهَا مَوْتَاكُمْ)).
Meaning: “ wear a white dress because it’s purer and better. And shroud the death with it
Harus : It is harus for a woman to perform the solat with clothing that she wore outside the house such as casual clothing as long as the aurat is covered.
Makruh : It is makruh for women to pray(solat) wearing tight clothing that shows of the shape of their bodies. If the garment can hide the colour of the skin but not the shape and size of the body, the solat is valid (sah) while wearing it because it is inevitable despite wearing warm clothing. According to the ulama’ of the Mazhab Syafie, it is makruh to wear this type of clothing.
Haram : It is haram for a woman to perform the solat wearing clothing that has come into contact with najis. The solat will be invalid (tidak sah) while wearing clothing that has come into contact with najis because one of the condition of valid solat requirements is clean from najis on your body, clothing and prayer area.(8) Besides that, according to ulama of Mazhab Syafie, a solat is valid(sah) wearing haram clothing-clothing that is bought with haram income or part of it. However the use of the clothing is haram.
 
USING VEIL/HEADGEAR(TELEKUNG) DURING SOLAT

1) WHITE VEIL:

Generally, women are used to wearing a white veil when praying either at home or in the mosque. The hukum of wearing a white veil is harus as long as the colour of the skin can be conceal. White is a symbol of purity and simplicity and at the same time it is the favourite colour of the Prophet Muhammad SAW.

2) LYCRA VEIL

Nowadays, we are exposed to a variety of the latest styles, shapes, patterns, and colours in daily clothing, which also includes clothing for solat. Lycra veil was introduced to the public long ago. As we all know, the characteristics of Lycra fabric is a fabric that is casual, springy (elastic), heat resistant, soft, smooth, has a high resistance to bending. Its use is harus as long as the goal is to perform their religious duties faithfully and to cover the aurat, and not with the intention to show off. However, it turns out that high quality Lycra fabric and thick is able to cover the women’s aurat during solat and does not stick to the body. However, the wearing of a thin and tight Lycra veil should be avoided.

3) COLOURED VEIL

It is harus for a woman to wear coloured veil. They must choose the appropriate colour to wear to the mosque such as simple or soft bright colours. Its aims is to avoid the attention of non-mahram men and distract the women’s jemaah during solat. Selection of colours such as cream, soft pink or pastel colours are seen more in tune with our environment. The use of a veil of colour like bright pink, bright red, and similar to it should be avoided because of the use of bright colour is rarely practiced by our society.

4) PATTERNED VEIL

The use of a patterned or coloured veil is harus. However, the first thing that needs to be assessed is the main purpose of wearing the patterned veil. Our main purpose to wear a veil is to cover the aurat properly and be able to concentrate fully during solat so that our ibadah will be accepted by Allah SAW. It has to considered also issues of wearing patterned veil with embroidery, beads, stitched flowers or existing pattern on the cloth. If she intend to cover the aurat and perform the ibadah solely to Allah SWT, then it is harus as long as concentration of self and other Jemaah is not compromised. However, if she intends to show off, then it is prohibited.

USING OTHER CLOTHING BESIDES VEIL (TELEKUNG) DURING SOLAT

There is evidence from Quranic verses related to obligations to cover the aurat as Allah says:

يَا بَنِي آدَمَ خُذُوا زِينَتَكُمْ عِنْدَ كُلِّ مَسْجِدٍ
Meaning: "O son of Adam, wear beautiful clothes every time you enter the mosque". (Al-Araf: 31)

According to Ibn Abbas r.a, what is required here is a dress when praying. And His words again:

يَا أَسْمَاءُ. إنَّ اْلَمَرْأَةَ إِذَا بلغَتِ المحيضَ لَمْ يَصلُحْ أن يُرى مِنْهَا إلَّا هَذَا وَهَذا ، وأشارَ إِلَى وَجْهِهِ وَكَفَّيهِ.
Meaning: "O Asma ', the daughter of an age when menstruation (puberty) occurs, all cannot be seen except this and this. Prophet Muhammad shows the face and both his hands ".
According to the book Fiqh & Islamic Jurisprudence by Dr. Wahba Zuhayli, one of the conditions for covering the aurat should be thick and not thin (see through). It is wajib to cover the aurat with a thick cloth or leather or paper that can hide the colour of the skin. If the fabric is thin or sparse that can reveal nothing underneath the limb there appeared behind the cloth or skin colour such as bright or reddish, it is not legitimate to pray with him for not achieving the goal of closing the genitalia.

Conversely, if the fabric can hide the colour, but the shape and size of the body, then pray with valid because it can not be avoided even if wearing a thick cloth. However, in the opinion of the school of Shafi'i scholars, such as cloth worn by women disliked it and make mistakes al-awla for men. In the opinion of Shafi'i Jurist, provided that the cover is something that does not show colour, though the murky water, or soil. But can not use the narrow sheath and darkness as a cover nakedness. In their opinion, the lid must be holy.
 
DIVERSITY IN WOMENSWEAR DURING SOLAT

  1. T-shirt + Jeans + Case Sleeve
As you know, if we want to pray with the clothing worn we are outside our home such as t-shirts, jeans and arm sleeves, we need ensure the clothes we are wearing is appropriate for solat. If the clothes character are thick, loose (does not reveal the shape of the body) and not see-through (does not show colour of skin), then it is harus to be used for solat. In addition, the clothing must be clean of unclean elements (najis) that can void (batal) our solat.
  1. Dress + Stockings
Gown or dress is a type of women's clothing such as lengthy robes but varies according to the latest styles and trends and consist of different colours, textiles and forms according to their preferences. Not all dresses meet the criteria of covering the aurat because most of this kind of dress are tailored to the shape of the wearer's body and the cloth used are usually thin. If you want to wear them for solat, we need to make sure the dress does not reveal the shape of the body and it is not the see through type of clothes that can reveal the colour our skin. The clothing must also be loose. We should also wear stocking that will not reveal the colour of our skin, thus wearing stockings made out of thick materials will suffice.

  1. Veil (Hijab) + T-shirt (see figure)
Veil (hijab) that is allowed to be worn during solat is a veil that covers her hair perfectly, thick enough to not reveal the neck and falls until it covers the chest. If the veil (hijab) used meet these requirements, it is harus to use it during solat. It is makruh to wear a tight t-shirt that reveals the shape of our body during solat. Tight clothing will usually reveal the hips and breasts, unless we look at other initiatives to cover it.
 
NOT DRESSED DURING PRAYER (SOLAT)

Based on the ulamak of Maliki’s opinion, someone who does not have a covering for the aurat, solat can be performed in the nude because covering the aurat is obligatory when you are able and is not required when you are unable. naked shall pray for as cover themselves prosecuted when I can, then miscarried claim if helpless. Based on the ulamak of Hannbali’s opinion, when there is no clothing or covering the solat needs to be performed while sitting and using signs. Based on the opinion of ulamak of Syafie and Hanafi, it is obligatory (wajib) to perform the solat although dirt is used on the body as covering.
According to Hanafi and Maliki, the darkness is adequate as a cover under the circumstances, while the most authentic opinion among the ulamak of Shafie, the hand must be used as cover, as is the opinion of the ulamak of Hanbali. According to the Shafie, the solat needs to be done standing to complete the rukun of solat. While in the opinion of both Hanafi and Hambali solat must be performed while sitting and signs are used for the rukuk and sujud.

In conclusion, solat jemaah is harus for those who do not have clothes. Therefore, based on the opinion of Shafie and Hanbali, they can perform the solat alone or as a jemaah. If the solat is done as a jemaah, the imam should stand in the middle of the saf, and all the makmum needs to be in a line so that they cannot see each other’s aurat. However, if two saf needs to be made, everyone should pray with their eyes closed.

In the view of the Shafie, if all the makmum is blind or in a dark place, it is harus to perform the solat as a jemaah. The hukum on performing the solat as a jemaah or alone is the same. This clearly shows that the obligation to perform the solat is wajib on everybody who has reached puberty (baligh),no matter what the circumstances is. This is because the solat is a form of servitude to Allah SAW that needs to be done as Allah says:

إِنَّ الصَّلَاةَ كَانَتْ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ كِتَابًا مَوْقُوتًا
Meaning: “Surely solat is made obligatory for the believers at their prescribed time.”(An-Nisa :103)

The Hukum on Performing Solat Using Gloves and Socks

The solat of a woman wearing gloves is valid (sah). The solat is also valid (sah) if gloves are not worn during solat. According to the majority of the ulamak, the woman needs to cover their feet during solat. Some ulamak said it’s allowable to not cover the feet if the clothes worn is long enough to hide the feet, but the majority of the ulamak agrees that the feet should not be exposed.
 
The Hukum of Wearing Face Cover (Niqab) during Solat

It is sunat for the woman to not cover up her face during solat if there is no non-muhrim men around. As we know the forehead is one of the pillar (rukun) of sujud that consist of the forehead, both palms, the knees and the bottom section of the fingers of the feet. Rasulullah SAW said :

عَنْ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُمَا عَنِ النَّبِيُّ (ص) قَالَ أُمِرْتُ أَنْ أَسْجُدَ عَلَى سَبْعَةِ أَعْظُمٍ، عَلَى الجَبْهَةِ وَأَشَارَ بِيَدِهِ عَلَى أَنْفِهِ - وَالْيَدَيْنِ، وَالرُّكْبَتَيْنِ، وَأَطْرَافِ اْلقَدَمَيْنِ، وَلَا نَكْفِتُ الثِّيَابَ وَالشَّعْرَ.

Meaning: From Ibnu Abbas r.a. from Prophet SAW : “ I was asked to sujud(by Allah SAW), so that I sujud using seven parts of the body; namely the forehead, both palms, both knees and two bottom part of the feet and we cannot obstruct the clothes and the hair.
Based on the book Prayer Perfection Leadership for one who perfoms the solat, they must not sujud on something that covers the forehead such as the top section of the veil (tudung). The sujud is not valid (sah) on the cloth because it moves together with the action of solat.
 
The Hukum of Wearing Make Up During Solat

The solat is valid (sah) for women who wears make up on their face during solat. Normally make up is only used after the ablution (wuduk) is performed. But they have to ensure that the elements in the make up is clean and free from doubtful ingredients. Besides, they also have to wash the make up on their faces before ablution (wuduk) is performed because there are elements in the make up that prevents water from reaching the body parts in ablution (wuduk) such as lipstick and mascara that has waterproof properties. This should be emphasised to all women because it involves the most important ibadah in Islam.
 
Is Chin considered as Aurat?

In identifying whether the chin is considered an aurat or not can be seen in the ablution (wuduk) practice while washing the face.
Based on Shafie book of Fiqh, the boundary of face starts from where the hair grows (top part) until the bootom part of the chin and the width is from ear to ear. It is wajib to wash everything on the face including the eyebrow, moustache and beard; physically and spiritually. All of that is part of the face except a thick beard that cannot be seen what lies underneath (base) so it is sufficient to wash what is physically seen.
A face is part of the body that fronts a person. Its length is between the base of the hair until the end of the chin, in other words it’s where the forehead starts and ends below the chin. The chin is where the beard grows and is placed on top of the bottom jaw. While both jawbone is where the bottom teeth of a person is located. It is wajib to wash part of the head, neck, the bottom part of the jaw and both ears. The ulamak of Hanafi and Maliki feel that it is not wajib for the wash a long and thick beard because it is considered hair that juts out of the boundary of the fardu body parts and it’s also not part of the face.
Imam Shafie in his book Al-Umm also said that the chin si part of the face. The bottom part of the chin has become a khilafiah issue among ulamak. Some say if the chin is part of the face, it is not wajib for the women to cover the chin during solat. However, there is a different view that says if the chin is considered part of the neck, it is wajib to cover it during solat. In order to be on the safe side, it is encouraged to cover it so that part of the neck is not exposed while moving.

CONCLUSION

As a conclusion, solat dressing for women is not just about wearing the hijab that has been the custom and norm in Malaysia. Islam itself has given the flexibility and convenience for them to dress as long as it doesn’t go against the syarak. Thus, a lot of things need to be considered by the Muslim women concerning the solat to ensure the ibadah that is performed is accepted and received by Allah SWT.
 
BIBLIOGRAFI

Al-Quran
Al-Hadis
Dr Mustofa Al-Khin, Dr Mustofa Al-Bugho & Ali Asy-Syarbaji. 2011. Kitab Fikah Mazhab Syafie. Percetakan Salam: Kuala Lumpur.
Haji Hussain Haji Paris. 2002. Kepimpinan Kesempurnaan Sembahyang. Samasa Press: Sarawak.
Haji Shihabudin. 2005. Wanita Bertanya Ulama Menjawab. Jasmin Enterprise: Kuala Lumpur.
Haya Binti Mubarok Al-Barik. 1999. Ensiklopedia Wanita Muslimah. Kuala Lumpur: Pustaka Syuhada.
Mu’ammal Hamidy, Imron & Umar Fanany. 1994.Terjemahan Nailul Authar. Victory Agensi: Malaysia.
Syeikh Abu Malik Kamal Bin As-Sayid Salim. 2012. Ensiklopedia Fiqah Wanita Muslimah. Selangor: Berlian Publications Sdn Bhd.
Wahbah Al-Zuhaili. . 1997. Fiqh & Perundangan Islam. Selangor: Dewan Bahasa Dan Pustaka.
Wahbah Al-Zuhaili. 2010. Fiqih Islam Wa Adillatuhu. Darul Fikir: Jakarta.
 
INTERNET-Dorar.net.http://nashfesyen.blogspot.com/2013/10/mengenali-fabrik-chiffon-georgette-dan.html.
Wahbah Al-Zuhaili. . 1997. Fiqh & Perundangan Islam. Selangor: Dewan Bahasa Dan Pustaka. Jilid 1. m.s 610.
Ibid. m.s 610.
Ibid . m.s 598.
Wahbah Al-Zuhaili. 2010. Fiqih Islam Wa Adillatuhu. Darul Fikir: Jakarta. m.s 150.
Fathul Bari syarah Sahih Muslim. m.s 3/162. Status Hadis: Sahih.
Ibid. m.s 601.
Ibid. m.s 151.
Mu’ammal Hamidy, Imron & Umar Fanany. 1994.Terjemahan Nailul Authar. Victory Agensi: Malaysia. Jilid 1. m.s 405-406.
Diakses pada 4 April 2015. http://nashfesyen.blogspot.com/2013/10/mengenali-fabrik-chiffon-georgette-dan.html.
Sunan Al-Kubra Al-Baihaqi. m.s 2/226. Status Hadis: Mursal. Sunan Abi Daud. no. hadis: 4104
Ibid. m.s 598-599.
Ibid. m.s. 601-602.
Ustaz Haji Shihabudin. 2005. Wanita Bertanya Ulama Menjawab. Jasmin Enterprise: Kuala Lumpur. M.S 88-89.
Ibid. M.S 88.
Sahih Bukha ri. M.S 812. Status Hadis: Sahih.
Haji Hussain Haji Paris. 2002. Kepimpinan Kesempurnaan Sembahyang. Samasa Press: Sarawak. m.s 109.
Dr Mustofa Al-Khin, Dr Mustofa Al-Bugho & Ali Asy-Syarbaji. 2011. Kitab Fikah Mazhab Syafie. Percetakan Salam: Kuala Lumpur. m.s 65.
Ibid. 196-197.
Husein Abdul Hamid & Ulama Al-Azhar Al-Syarif. 2007. Mukhtasar Kitab Al-Umm Fi Al-Fiqh Imam Al-Syafie. Perniagaan Jahabersa: Johor Bharu. m.s 22.

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