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Early Years of Establishment

Perak was one of the Federated Malay State during the British Colonial Department It was established in 1896. Since 1948, the Perak Constitution has officially recognized that His Royal Highness the Sultan of Perak is the Head of Religious and Malay Customs in Perak and the official religion of the state at that time was the Islam. HRH the Sultan also had full authority in all matters pertaining to the administration.

“Ninety Nine Laws”


Base on some historical records, the "Ninety Nine Laws Of Perak" written by Penghulu Teja Tuan Syed Yunus b. Syed Alwi is believed to be the oldest law in the state of Perak. It is mainly focused on Religious Affairs. The exact date of enforcement of this law is not known, but enforcement of the law was implemented until 1900.

After that, the law has been replaced by a different law known as the Law of the Administration of Muslim Marriage Chapter 197 FMS. As a result, an office building was built at Qadhi’s Office of the Kuala Kangsar District ans was named “Balai Syarak”. A “Qadhi Besar” who heads a few District Qadhi was placed in the office.The Qadhi districts at that time was Tanjong Malim, Tapah, Teluk Intan, Batu Gajah, Ipoh, Setiawan, Taiping, Simpang Lima, Kuala Kangsar, Selama, Lenggong and Parit. Among the Malays, the term “Chief Qadhi” was used more regularly than “Qadhi Besar”.

However, according to history, indeed the “Ninety Nine Law” has existed since the reign of the late Sultan Idris Shah Mursidil A'Azam from 1887 until 1916. He was believed to have appointed Tuan Haji Wan Muhammad b. Wan Hussin as his religious teacher, some even called him the Mufti. Tuan Haji Wan Muhammad b. Wam Hussin is unofficially the first Perak Mufti. He carried out his duties until the reign of his son, the late Sultan Iskandar Alang from 1918 until 1938.

“Alim Ulama Perak” Meeting

In mid-1947, when the struggle of Malay Nationalist against the Malayan Union still debated, some new organizations and associations were formed. Among the most notable of these is the Association of Perak Malays which was later followed by a meeting of “Alim Ulama” that was held at the “Madrasah Iskandariah” in Kuala Kangsar. This meeting was held on August 10, 1947 which was intended to bring together all the energy and strength of `Ulama' in the state.

In Religious Affairs, this meeting was very important because this was the first time an idea or insight has been put forward to the government. It urged the government to set up a department to administer and control of Islamic Affairs, especially in Perak and generally throughout the Malay Peninsula.

Among the leaders who should be honoured and remembered at the meeting was Mr Ali Zaini which is now known as Dato 'Ali Zaini who has served as Perak State Speaker. At the meeting he was the youngest participant and capable of suggesting brilliant ideas throughout the meeting.


The Establishment of the Perak Islamic Religious Council

On 23 October 1949 (1 Muharram 1369H) that fell on a Sunday, the Perak State Government established a Religious Entity that was called “Majlis Agama Islam dan Adat Melayu Perak”. This establishment is intended to advise and assist the Sultan in matters related to Islam dan Adat Melayu Perak in Perak. On May 1, 1952, the state government has approved the Law Majlis Agama Islam dan Adat Melayu Perak. Subsequently, on May 1, 1965, Perak Islamic Religious Administration Law also has been approved as a substitute for legal sebelumnya.Dengan establishment of the Council and the Department of Perak Islamic Religious Affairs, the office of Qadhi, who had been in Kuala Kangsar was transferred and consolidated in Ipoh. Under the administration of the Islamic Religious Council, certain parts have been created for the launch of any business carried on. The four divisions are:
  1. The Fatwa - chaired by Mufti.
  2. Syariah Courts - led by Qadhi Besar and Qadhi Besar District.
  3. Education Division - administered by Nazir.
  4. General Division - under the administration of a Chief Clerk of carrying on the business to all parts.
In 1951, three laws were introduced, namely:
  1. Law of Perak No.6 / 1951 regarding the Islamic Religious Council and Malay.
  2. Law of Perak No.1 / 1951 regarding the Baitul Mal, Zakat and Fitrah.
  3. Law of Perak No.8 / 1951 regarding the Wakaf Control.
In 1951, the Administrative Law Islam was passed and implemented to replace the previous enactment. The status of Islam in the Malay Peninsula became stronger when the country gained independence in 1957. After the independence, the Islamic Religious Council or the Department of Religious Affairs were established in every state in the Malay Peninsula.

After 1965, all the laws that have been enacted in 1951 were no longer used. This was due to the action of Islamic Religious Council creating a new law that covers all areas of the Administration of the law known as the Islamic Religious Administration 1965.
The primary purpose of the Majlis Agama Islam dan Adat Melayu Perak as well as the Department of Islamic Affairs is to advise and assist the Sultan on the administration of religious schools, waqaf, religious teachers, treasury, tithes, mosques, madrasah and restructuring the Qadhi’s court aand matters related to the Mufti of Perak.

Basically Perak Islamic Religious Department (JAIP) has been restructured to comply with the certificate of Modernisation Unit and the Human Resources Administration (MAMPU), which was approved by the Public Service Department (JPA) in 1989. However, the District Religious Office was not included in the restructuring. Office of the State Secretary (SUK) through orders from Public Service Department (JPA) has asked the Perak Islamic Religious Department to restructure the organization as a whole and in stages. Based on this instruction the department has reviewed and re-drafted the existence of new positions as a whole in accordance with the requirements of the state in improving the ability of the departments to carry out their duties in a responsible and orderly manner.

History Appointment of Mufti of Perak Darul Ridzuan

1935, Sultan Iskandar officially appointed Haji Muhammad Zain bin Muhammad Amin as the first Perak Mufti. Prior to that, Mr. Haji Muhammad Zain is a religious teacher to the Sultan. Perak Mufti’s Office was housed in the building that now serves as the Town Hall at Jalan Istana Bukit Chandan, Kuala Kangsar. Previously it was the Office of the Private Secretary to His Majesty the Sultan. Tuan Haji Muhammad Zain was also the father to Dato Seri Haji Ali Zaini, former Speaker of Perak.

In 1941, the first Perak Mufti passed away. After that the post has been held by Mufti Haji Ismail Hamzah, who later died on 5 October 1954. On 1 November 1955 Tuan Haji Tahir was appointed and he retired on December 31, 1957. He is then replaced by Tuan Haji Sha'aya bin Abdul Majid, who died on July 12, 1963. that, the post of Mufti was held by Dato’ Haji Abu Hassan bin Abdul Majid DPMP, and when he retired in 1977, the post of Mufti was taken over by Dato' Haji Muhammad Ghazali bin Haji Abdullah, who later retired in 1981. After that, OKK Imam Paduka Tuan, Dato’ Haji Abdul Malek bin Haji Nordin was elevated to the post. In 1985, Dato’ Haji Abdul Malek decided to end his career and eventually the State Mufti’s post was held by Dato’ Seri Haji Zakaria bin Haji Harussani until now.


1. Tuan Haji Muahammad Zain bin Muhammad Amin - 1935 until 1941
2. Tuan Haji Ismail bin Haji Hamzah - 1941 until 1954
3. Tuan Haji Muhammad Tahir bin Muhammad Saman - 1955 until 1957
4. Tuan Haji Sha'aya bin Abdul Majid - 1957 until 1963
5. Dato' Haji Abu Hassan bin Abdul Majid DPMP - 1963 until 1977
6. Dato' Haji Muhammad Ghazali bin Haji Abdullah - 1977 until 1981
7. Dato' Seri Haji Abdul Malek bin Haji Nordin - 1981 until 1985
8. Tan Sri Dato' Seri Haji Harussani bin Haji Zakaria - 1985 until the present.

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